Plato was born in 428 BC in the heart of an aristocratic family in Athens . His father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens. Perictione , his mother was related to the sixth century BC legislature Solon. His father died when he was a child and his mother remarried Pyrilampes , associate of the statesman Pericles.
A young man Plato had political ambitions but became disillusioned with the rulers of Athens. He
later became a disciple of Socrates , accepting his basic philosophy
and dialectical style of debate: the pursuit of truth through questions,
answers and more questions , maieutics . Although
this is a very controversial episode , which some scholars consider it a
literary metaphor about power, Plato witnessed the death of Socrates
during the Athenian democracy in 399 BC Fearing for his life perhaps , some time left Athens and traveled to Italy, Sicily and Egypt.
In 387 Plato founded the Academy in Athens , the institution often considered the first European university. It
provided a comprehensive curriculum , including subjects such as
astronomy , biology, mathematics , political theory and philosophy. Aristotle was the most outstanding student .
Faced with the possibility of combining philosophy and political practice , Plato went to Sicily in 367 BC to tutor the new ruler of Syracuse, Dionysius the Younger. The experiment failed . Plato returned to Syracuse in 361 BC , but again their participation in Sicilian affairs had little success . He spent the last years of his life lecturing and writing in the Academy . He died nearly 80 years at Athens in 348 or 347 BC
writings took the form of dialogues , which outlined philosophical
ideas were discussed and criticized in the context of a conversation or
debate involving two or more people. The first group of writings of Plato includes 35 dialogues and 13 letters . It has questioned the authenticity of some dialogue and most of the cards.
Dialogs can be divided into three stages of composition. The first represents Plato 's attempt to communicate the philosophy and dialectical style of Socrates. Some of these dialogues have the same argument. Socrates meets someone who claims to know much , to be ignorant and ask for help when he claims to know . However,
as Socrates starts asking questions , it becomes clear that sage who is
said not really know what he claims to know and that Socrates appears
as the wiser of the two characters because , at least , he knows that he
knows nothing . That knowledge , of course , is the beginning of wisdom . Within
this group of dialogues are Charmides ( an attempt to define temperance
) , Lysis ( a discussion about friendship ) , Laches ( a search for the
meaning of the value ) , Protagoras ( a defense of the thesis that
virtue is knowledge and
it is possible to learn it ) , Euthyphro ( a consideration of the
nature of piety ) , and Book I of the Republic ( a discussion of justice
Dialogues intermediate and ultimate
The dialogues of the intermediate and final periods of Plato's life reflect his own philosophical development . The ideas of these works are attributed to Plato himself , although Socrates is still the main character in many dialogues . The
writings cover the interim period of Gorgias ( a reflection on various
ethical issues ) , Meno ( a discussion of the nature of knowledge ) ,
Apology ( Socrates his defense of himself at the trial in which he was
accused of atheism and corrupting
Athenian youth ) , Cratylus ( Socrates' defense of obedience to the
laws of the State) , Phaedrus ( scene of the death of Socrates , in
which he discusses the theory of ideas, the nature of the soul and the
immortality) , The Symposium ( Plato 's outstanding dramatic
achievement that contains several discourses on beauty and love ) and
the Republic ( Plato's supreme philosophical , a detailed discussion of
the nature of justice ) .
the works of the later period include the Theaetetus ( a denial that
knowledge has to be identified with the sense of perception) ,
Parmenides ( a critical evaluation of the theory of ideas) , Sophist (
further reflection on the ideas or anyway)
, Philebus ( discussion of the relationship between pleasure and
goodness ) , Timaeus ( Plato's ideas about science and cosmology ) , and
Law ( a more practical political and social issues ) .
Theory of Ideas
In the center of Plato's philosophy is his theory of forms or ideas . Basically,
his idea of knowledge, his ethical theory , his psychology , his
concept of the state and his perspective of art must be understood from
Theory of Knowledge
The theory of the ideas of Plato and his theory of knowledge are so interrelated that must be addressed together. Influenced by Socrates, Plato was convinced that knowledge can be attained. He was also convinced of two essential features of knowledge. First , knowledge must be certain and infallible. Second , knowledge must have as its object what is real truth in contrast to what is only apparently . Since
Plato what is real has to be fixed , permanent and unchanging ,
identified the real with the ideal sphere of existence as opposed to the
physical world of becoming. One consequence of this approach was Plato's rejection of empiricism , the claim that all knowledge is derived from experience. I thought that the propositions from experience have , at most , a degree of probability . They are not true. Furthermore,
the objects of experience are changing phenomena of the physical world ,
therefore the objects of experience are not proper objects of
theory of knowledge outlined in Plato's Republic , particularly in his
discussion of the image of the divided line and the myth of the cave . In the first, Plato distinguishes between two levels of awareness: opinion and knowledge. Statements
or claims about the physical or visible world , including the
observations and propositions of science are just opinion. Some of these opinions are well founded and some not, but none of them counts as true knowledge. The highest point of knowledge is knowledge, because it concerns the reason rather than experience. The
reason , used in due form, leads to ideas that are certain and the
objects of these rational insights are true universals , the eternal
forms or substances that constitute the real world .
The myth of the cave describes individuals chained in the deepest part of a cave. Tied to the wall face , his vision is limited and therefore can not tell anyone. All you see is the wall of the cave on which models or statues reflect animals and objects passing in front of a glowing fire . One individual flees and leaves to the light of day . With
the help of the sun , this person first sees the real world and back to
the cave saying that the only things I have seen so far are shadows and
appearances and that the real world awaits them outside to break free
of their ties . The shadowy world of the cave symbolizes for Plato the physical world of appearances. The
trip to the sunny world outside the cave symbolizes the transition to
the real world, the world of full and perfect existence , which is the
object of knowledge .
Nature of ideas
The theory of ideas can best be understood in terms of mathematical entities . A circle , for example, is defined as a plane figure composed of a series of points, all equidistant from one place. However, no one has actually seen that figure.
What people are seen drawn figures that are more or less accurate approximations of the ideal circle . In fact , when mathematicians define a circle , the above points are not spatial , but logical . No space. However,
although the shape of a circle not ever seen - and you can not see ever
- mathematicians and others do know what it is. Plato , therefore , exists in the form of circle , but not in the physical space and time. It exists as an immutable object in the field of ideas, which can only be known by reason. The
ideas are more entity objects in the physical world both for its
perfection and stability as being a model , similarities that give
ordinary physical objects which have reality . The circular, square and triangular are excellent examples of what Plato meant by idea. An
object that exists in the physical world can be called circle, square
or triangle because it seems ( " participates " in the words of Plato)
to the idea of a circle , square or triangle.
Plato extended his theory beyond the field of mathematics. Actually, I was more interested in its application in the field of social ethics . The theory was his way of explaining how the same universal term can refer to many things or particular events . The
word justice , for example , can be applied to hundreds of actionable
because such acts have something in common , they seem to , participate
in , the idea of justice . A person is human because he looks like , or participates in , the idea of humanity . If humanity is defined in terms of being a rational animal , then a person is human because it is rational . A particular act may be considered brave or cowardly because part of the idea. An object is beautiful because part of the idea, or form of beauty. Therefore, everything in the world of space and time is what it is by virtue of its resemblance to the universal idea . The ability to define the universal term is the proof that the idea has mastered the universal that referenced.
conceived hierarchically ideas : the idea of God is supreme , that ,
like the sun in the myth of the cave , illuminates all other ideas. The idea of God represents the passage of Plato in the direction of an ultimate principle of explanation. Basically,
the theory of ideas is intended to explain the way by which one attains
the knowledge and also how things have become what they are. In
philosophical language , the theory of Plato's thesis is both an
epistemological ( theory of knowledge) as an ontological thesis ( theory
of being ) .
The Republic , most political works of Plato, is the question of justice and therefore the questions what is a just state ? and an individual who is just offshore.
The ideal state according to Plato, is composed of three classes. The economic structure of the state lies in the merchant class . Security at the military and political leadership is assumed by the philosopher- kings . The
kind of a person is determined by an educational process that begins at
birth and continues until that person has reached the highest level of
education consistent with their interests and abilities. Those who complete the entire educational process become philosopher-kings . They
are those whose minds have evolved so much that they are able to
understand the ideas and , therefore , make the wisest decisions . In fact, Plato's ideal educational system is primarily structured to produce philosopher-kings .
Plato associates the traditional Greek virtues with the class structure of the ideal state . Temperance
is the only virtue of the artisan class , the value is the power of the
military class and wisdom characterizes the rulers. Justice , the fourth virtue , characterizes society as a whole. The just state is one in which each class must perform its own function without going into the activities of other classes .
Plato applied to the analysis of the human soul such a scheme : the rational , the will and appetites . A righteous person is one whose rational element , aided by the will , controls the appetites . There
is an obvious analogy with the previous state structure , in which the
wise philosopher-kings , aided by soldiers , govern the rest of society.
Plato 's ethical theory rests on the assumption that virtue is knowledge and that it can be learned. This doctrine must be understood in the whole of his theory of ideas. As
already said, the ultimate idea for Plato is the idea of God , and
knowledge of that idea is the guide on the verge of adopting a moral
decision. Plato maintained that to know God is to do good . The consequence of this is that anyone who behaves unethically so from ignorance. This
conclusion is derived from Plato's certainty that a virtuous person is
really happy and as individuals always desire their own happiness ,
always eager to do what is moral.
Plato had an idea antagonistic art and the artist even endorsing certain types of religious art and moralistic . Your approach has to do again with his theory of ideas. A pretty flower , for example, is a copy or imitation of universal ideas flower and beauty. The physical flower is a reproduction of reality , ie of ideas. A flower box is therefore a secondary reproduction of reality. This
also means that the artist is a reproduction of a second order of
knowledge and, indeed , the frequent criticism from Plato to the artists
was that they lacked a true knowledge of what they were doing. Artistic creation, Plato observed , seemed to have its roots in an inspired madness.
The influence of Plato through the history of philosophy has been immense . His
Academy existed until the year 529 BC , when it was closed by order of
the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, who opposed the spread of pagan
teachings . Plato 's impact on Jewish thought is obvious in the work of the first century Alexandrian philosopher Philo of Alexandria. Neoplatonism
, founded in the third century by the philosopher Plotinus , was an
important further development of the ideas of Plato. The theologians Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Augustine were early Christian exponents of a Platonic perspective . Platonic ideas played a crucial role in the development of Christianity and in medieval Islamic thought .
the Renaissance , the first center of influence Florentine Platonic
Academy was founded in the fifteenth century near Florence. Under the leadership of Marsilio Ficino , members of the Academy studied Plato in Ancient Greek. In
England , Platonism was recovered in the seventeenth century by Ralph
Cudworth and others who became known as the Cambridge school . Plato's
influence has come to hand twentieth century thinkers such as Alfred
North Whitehead , who once paid tribute describing the philosophy as a
simple ' set of annotations of Plato ' .
miércoles, 25 de septiembre de 2013
荷馬史詩，傳說將是一個盲詩人誰前往背誦史詩，在歐洲中世紀以後的幾個世紀，雖然沒有肯定自己的城鎮和城市，荷馬的名字是傳統的分配兩個偉大的古希臘史詩“伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” ，著名作家。事實上，這兩部史詩的一些問題是否是由同一作者。然而，可用的語言和歷史數據表明，詩寫在希臘小亞細亞西海岸的定居點，約公元前九世紀“伊利亞特”這兩部史詩敘述傳說中的事件據稱發生的時候，他們寫的許多世紀前。 “伊利亞特”中的特洛伊戰爭的最後一年，形成的大背景下的情節。它講述的希臘英雄阿喀琉斯的憤怒。由他的首席指揮官，年輕的戰士阿喀琉斯退出戰鬥，阿伽門農的侮辱，他的同胞的希臘人留下了自己的幸運，患上可怕的失敗在手中的木馬。阿基里斯拒絕所有嘗試希臘人的部分，但在和解中最後給出了一個辦法，讓帕特羅克洛斯自己他的同伴在他的部隊的頭。帕特羅克洛斯在戰鬥中死亡，阿喀琉斯的憤怒和怨恨的獵物，執導的木馬程序，其領導者，赫克托（普里阿摩斯的兒子） ，在單一的戰鬥中擊敗他的仇恨。這首詩最後交付阿喀琉斯Hector的身體普里阿摩斯的，因為它埋葬他，木馬王承認一定的親和力，因為都必須面對死亡的悲劇和哀悼。“奧德賽”“奧德賽”描述了希臘英雄奧德修斯特洛伊戰爭（在拉丁傳統的“尤利西斯” ）的回報。在開幕式的場景，講述了久違在奧德修斯的房子後，他的已經陷入了混亂。他的妻子佩內洛普求婚者的一組正在摧毀他們的財產。然後，自己的英雄故事的重點。故事跨越十幾年的旅行，其間面臨許多危險，如吃人的巨人波呂斐摩斯，如此微妙的威脅表示，如果他放棄承諾不朽的女神卡呂普索回了家。這首詩的下半年開始，他的家鄉伊薩卡島奧德修斯的到來。在這裡，顯示一絲絲涼意和無限的耐心，測試他的僕人的忠誠度，並生效情節血腥報復佩內洛普的追求者，並與他的兒子，他的妻子和老人團聚的父親。史詩這兩部史詩寫在正式的詩歌和升高，在日常語言中使用過的語言，它的指標是長短格六步（見作詩） 。這是不可能區分這兩部作品的文體方面。然而，這是很容易理解為什麼，自古以來，很多讀者會被歸結為兩種不同的作者。 “伊利亞特”講的激情和無法解決的難題。有沒有真正的壞人，阿伽門農，阿喀琉斯，普里阿摩斯和其他字符的受害者的悲慘和殘忍的宇宙。然而，在“奧德賽”中，被擊敗邪惡，正義的勝利和家人，黯然分開，再次相遇。理性的智慧，尤其是奧德修斯，作為整個故事的推動力。荷馬的讚美詩隨著與所謂荷馬的讚美詩，一系列相對短詩，慶祝戰功的各種神靈，史詩風格類似化合物的，也歸因於荷馬的“伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” 。荷馬問題現代文的荷馬史詩透過中世紀和文藝復興時期的手稿，而這又是古代手稿的副本，現在失去了。儘管奧德賽，廣大的讀者，從古代的身份荷馬（有人形容它作為一個盲人詩人希俄斯）或文本的某些部分的作者，存在許多不確定因素，最後的場面古典不久前，認為是一個詩人荷馬（或至多兩個詩人）很像別人。總之，他們認為， “伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” ，雖然傳統材料的基礎上，是獨立的作品，原來很大程度上是虛構的。然而，在過去的200年中，這一觀點已經發生了巨大的變化，出現了無盡的荷馬問題：誰，何時以及如何組成的“伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” ？然而，找到了答案，滿足各方。在十九世紀和二十世紀的學者們聲稱，某些內部矛盾來證明，詩歌僅僅是彙編，或添置，獨立的抒情詩短（規定） ，一神論，對他而言，覺得這些不一致微不足道的或假想的全球團結和詩表明，無論是產品的一個單一的心靈。近日，一直專注於學術的討論“口頭公式化的成分”的理論，繳費基數的詩，因為我們知道他們今天的傳統詩意的文辭是一個複雜的系統（例如，名詞組合綽號“跟腱燈腳”）只能是幾代人的共同努力下，英勇的吟遊詩人的產物。無論這些解釋是至關重要的，但它是公平地說，幾乎所有的評論家都同意，一方面，傳統的帶有很大的權重組成的詩，其次，基本上都似乎是工作的一個相同的創造者。同時，考古發現，在過去的125年的過程中，特別是那些海因里希·謝里曼表明，荷馬所描述的文明不是虛構的。因此，詩是有些歷史文件，並在任何時候創造的爭論一直存在這方面的討論。影響直接荷馬是後來的希臘文學之父：劇院，史學和哲學，承擔的問題，喜劇和悲劇的，在這些史詩和荷馬技術提出的印記。最新史詩詩人荷馬西方文學一直是無可爭議的大師（即使在但丁的情況下，不知道他的作品直接） 。但奇怪的是，最值得注意的是他的追隨者，荷馬的工作是客觀模型。因此，舉例來說，維吉爾的伊尼伊德來自荷馬史詩反駁個人主義的系統值，荷馬的場景，英國詩人約翰·彌爾頓的“失樂園”的詩句，描述了在天空中的戰鬥，本質上是漫畫。對於小說，拉曼恰（1605） ，堂吉訶德，塞萬提斯， “尤利西斯” （1922）詹姆斯·喬伊斯愛爾蘭，荷馬史詩，更容易模仿和嘲諷的史詩。事實是，從荷馬的時候，沒有作者匯集了他的史詩天才。@ Pacoespada1
Homer, as legend would be a blind bard who traveled the towns and cities reciting epics as was done in Europe in the Middle Ages and later centuries , although nothing is known for sure of himself , Homer is the name traditionally assigned the famous author of the Iliad and the Odyssey , the two great epics of ancient Greece . In fact, some question whether these two epics are by the same author . However, linguistic and historical data that are available suggest that the poems were written in the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor, about the ninth century BC
The two epics narrate legendary events which allegedly occurred many centuries before the time they were written . The Iliad is in the final year of the Trojan War , which forms the backdrop to the plot . It tells the story of the wrath of the Greek hero Achilles. Insulted by his commander in chief, Agamemnon , the young warrior Achilles withdraws from battle, leaving his fortune to his fellow Greeks, suffering terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans. Achilles rejected all attempts at reconciliation on the part of the Greeks , but finally gives in a way to allow his companion Patroclus himself at the head of his troops. Patroclus dies in combat, and Achilles , prey of anger and resentment, directed his hatred of Trojans, whose leader , Hector (son of Priam ) , defeated in single combat . The poem concludes with delivery Achilles Hector's body to Priam , for it to bury him , recognizing certain affinity with the Trojan king , since both must confront the tragedy of death and mourning.
The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek hero Odysseus ( Ulysses in the Latin tradition ) of the Trojan War . In the opening scenes recounted the mess that has been mired in the house of Odysseus after his long absence. A group of suitors of his wife Penelope is destroying their properties. Then, the story focuses on the hero himself . The story spans ten years of travel , during which faces many dangers like man-eating giant , Polyphemus , and so subtle threats as representing the goddess Calypso , who promises immortality if he renounces back home. The second half of the poem begins with the arrival of Odysseus to his home island of Ithaca. Here , displaying a coolness and infinite patience , tests the loyalty of his servants , and takes effect plot bloody revenge against Penelope 's suitors , and is reunited with his son , his wife and his elderly father.
These two epics are written in formal verse and elevated, in a language ever used in ordinary language , its metric is the dactylic hexameter (see versification ) . It is impossible to distinguish between these two works on the stylistic aspect . However, it is easy to understand why , since ancient times, many readers will have been attributed to two different authors . The Iliad speaks of passions and unsolvable dilemmas . There are no real villains in it , Achilles , Agamemnon , Priam and the other characters are victims of a tragic and cruel universe . In the Odyssey , however , evil is defeated, justice triumphs and family, sadly separated , meet again. The rational intellect , particularly that of Odysseus , acts as a driving force throughout the story.
Along with the Iliad and the Odyssey are the so-called Homeric Hymns , a series of relatively short poems , which celebrate the exploits of various gods , epic style compounds similar, also attributed to Homer .
The Homeric Question
The modern text of the Homeric poems are transmitted through medieval and Renaissance manuscripts , which in turn are copies of ancient manuscripts , now lost . Despite the many uncertainties that exist about the identity of Homer (some describe it as a blind bard of Chios ) or the authorship of certain parts of the text , as the final scenes of the Odyssey , the majority of readers , from ancient classical up not long ago , believed that Homer was a poet ( or at most , two poets ) much like others. They believed , in short, that the Iliad and the Odyssey , although based on traditional materials , are independent works , original and largely fictitious .
However, during the past 200 years , this view has changed dramatically, following the emergence of the endless Homeric Question : Who , how and when composed the Iliad and the Odyssey ? Yet found an answer that satisfies all parties. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries scholars have claimed that certain internal inconsistencies came to demonstrate that the poems were merely compilations, or additions , of independent short lyric poems ( lays ), the Unitarians , for his part, felt that these inconsistencies were insignificant or imaginary global unity and the poems showed that both were the product of a single mind. Recently, the academic discussion has focused on the theory of " oral - formulaic composition " , whereby the base of the poems as we know them today is a complex system of traditional poetic diction ( for example, combinations of noun - epithet " Achilles light foot " ) can only be the product of the joint efforts of several generations of bards heroic .
Neither of these interpretations is crucial , but it would be fair to say that virtually all commentators agree that , on the one hand , the tradition carries great weight in the composition of the poems and, secondly , that essentially both seem the work of a same creator . Meanwhile , archaeological findings made in the course of the last 125 years, particularly those of Heinrich Schliemann , have shown that much of the civilization described by Homer was not fictional . The poems are therefore somewhat historical documents , and discussion of this aspect has been present at all times in the debate over creation.
Homer is , directly , the father of later Greek literature : the theater , historiography and even philosophy , bear the imprint of the issues, comic and tragic , raised in these epics and Homeric techniques . For the latest epic poets Homer Western literature has always been the undisputed master ( even if, as in the case of Dante , did not know his works directly) . But curiously, most notable for his followers , Homer's work was both objective model . Thus, for example , Virgil's Aeneid comes to refute the individualistic system of values of the Homeric epic , and the Homeric scenes of Paradise Lost , the English poet John Milton , the verses that describe the battle in the sky , are essentially comic . With respect to the novel, Don Quixote of La Mancha ( 1605 ) , by Miguel de Cervantes , or Ulysses ( 1922 ) James Joyce Irish , the more Homeric are more likely to parody and mockery of the epic . The truth is that from the time of Homer , no author has brought together his epic genius.
domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013
The clock tower was about to strike twelve . The man turned his head each time to check the time, was walking through the square nervous in the coldest morning I remembered a long time. Some people passed him, indifferent to the turmoil he felt , wrapped in their coats trying to dodge the fierce blizzard that day in January mesetaria; ran looking for some shelter as the man trampled the snow with their rides nervous about the statue that occupied the center of the square.The twelve bells bounced off the gray atmosphere. She did not appear. The sky was still very dark and seemed to project a veil over the human heart , in the meantime, hit the ground with their feet to warm them . He thought of her, his image always stuck in your brain, in the silence of the night or in the bustle of the streets, did not care. She was always there.
The beating of his heart were redoubled , a mad rush of blood ran through his veins like fire on a wildfire. I felt burned their temples and leaned against the pedestal of the monument because he feared faint. A woman crossing the square walking towards him, he wore a fur coat and hat of the same material that windy ride , feisty, flirtatious ... she was, she had no doubt . The woman walked past without looking at Sergio . He was wrong , she was not as he had thought to see it from afar , with his face covered by the coat collar . He felt heavy and cold slab on his chest , further advance of another cold and heavy soon entirely cover him and that he would no longer feel about themselves . He had already made the decision because she knew that she would always another that was united by marriage, by appearances , a key element in social relations , especially in a provincial town .I knew they would never unite their lives , even their bodies , and I knew that quote was crazy stupid. The promise he had started the previous evening in a moment of despair was not a sign of love if not of concern , it could be feared that the man threw the river from the bridge as he swore he would do if he did not agree to meet .But ... what if it were not so ? What if she came to the end of the ready to run away with him ? What if he loved him ?However, as time was separated from the twelve and she still did not appear , which had guessed what had always known in the back of your being , that is, that the object of his passion would not live to his side ever became a reality , inexorable as a sentence . Time's up , no more illusions That left the bridge and below the river with deep water, frost , cozy . They would calm for all their pain and anxiety.But still expect a little more. I could have missed something , perhaps had been delayed for some compelling reason , why not finally prevent outside your appointment and they could see her come running to throw herself into his arms , because what could be more important than the passion that united ?The bell struck one in the clock tower . A male figure shuffled through the snow to leave the square down a side street that led to the bridge across the river.Ten minutes later a woman came to the plaza looking around, with rapid head movements , almost like a bird. He seemed to find someone . She crossed the square thinking tragedies in flames go out. I understood that something was wrong because of the delay . If so could never forgive . The winter wind howling around her with reproach and the woman thought of the man . I felt that the last meeting he had with him had happened a thousand years ago .Actually I had met the previous month and in that space of time had become the center of gravity on which his life revolved . He began to feel his own transformation within a few days to meet , at a party held at the home of a mutual friend , by whom they were presented . He soon realized that the man's interest in her was very special , saw this situation with eyes that were not body , because she had appeared a deep impression . I knew there were casualties encounters at the entrance of the theater when she arrived with her husband , or that all significant parties to whom came he was, and that non of relevant local characters . The disdain he had felt at first toward the man had become soon after, without knowing how, in a unremitting passion , a sense of emptiness and fullness to a time that made him dream about him in each and every one of those Frosty nights steppe city . I was afraid even that could have spoken his name in a dream , the suspicion arose out of some looks from her husband who seemed to hide a background bitter, murky water where there was glass bowl .She however , basically did not care what her husband might think because, when the man had declared his love and desire felt the bonds of their marriage had irretrievably broken and now I could not remember what link Real had joined the man who slept with her.He received the cold whip in the face and recalled the ultimatum he had pronounced the day after begging antrior , and curse him : If she did not leave him kill himself .Think you 'd be dead now anywhere was something that he suffered as a thousand deaths ; feeling agony not let him think out of the square and headed down the street almost groping for his eyes were thick with tears , towards the bridge on the frozen river . If you still could find , stop ...The man's words echoed endlessly in his head as he walked the hieroglyph of streets leading to the river, without looking too much about where I was going , the foot was led by force of habit, reached the bridge feeling that escaped her throat heart up by fear and hope. Soon he saw that there was no one except her and her terror, that seemed to have taken shape . I knew the bridge was his favorite place and that this confession was his place to die. Tears streamed down her face like tiny glaciers while searching for some sign , some vestige however little , to let him think he was alive , but all that went with it was desperation, who along with his frozen tears descended to join the turbulent flow.Someone heard a scream torn woman who stopped short , someone who did not pay more attention and kept going while the other side of town, on a filthy tavern , the man hurried his umpteenth cup and , with the advice of wine trying to justify the fact that still continue in this world with the idea that not deserve to die by a woman who had broken his promise. Within it, in the depths of his conscience, offered by his cowardice .