miércoles, 2 de octubre de 2013

Plato, his philosophical work

Plato was born in 428 BC in the heart of an aristocratic family in Athens . His father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens. Perictione , his mother was related to the sixth century BC legislature Solon. His father died when he was a child and his mother remarried Pyrilampes , associate of the statesman Pericles.
A young man Plato had political ambitions but became disillusioned with the rulers of Athens. He later became a disciple of Socrates , accepting his basic philosophy and dialectical style of debate: the pursuit of truth through questions, answers and more questions , maieutics . Although this is a very controversial episode , which some scholars consider it a literary metaphor about power, Plato witnessed the death of Socrates during the Athenian democracy in 399 BC Fearing for his life perhaps , some time left Athens and traveled to Italy, Sicily and Egypt.
In 387 Plato founded the Academy in Athens , the institution often considered the first European university. It provided a comprehensive curriculum , including subjects such as astronomy , biology, mathematics , political theory and philosophy. Aristotle was the most outstanding student .
Faced with the possibility of combining philosophy and political practice , Plato went to Sicily in 367 BC to tutor the new ruler of Syracuse, Dionysius the Younger. The experiment failed . Plato returned to Syracuse in 361 BC , but again their participation in Sicilian affairs had little success . He spent the last years of his life lecturing and writing in the Academy . He died nearly 80 years at Athens in 348 or 347 BC
Plato's writings took the form of dialogues , which outlined philosophical ideas were discussed and criticized in the context of a conversation or debate involving two or more people. The first group of writings of Plato includes 35 dialogues and 13 letters . It has questioned the authenticity of some dialogue and most of the cards.
first dialogues
Dialogs can be divided into three stages of composition. The first represents Plato 's attempt to communicate the philosophy and dialectical style of Socrates. Some of these dialogues have the same argument. Socrates meets someone who claims to know much , to be ignorant and ask for help when he claims to know . However, as Socrates starts asking questions , it becomes clear that sage who is said not really know what he claims to know and that Socrates appears as the wiser of the two characters because , at least , he knows that he knows nothing . That knowledge , of course , is the beginning of wisdom . Within this group of dialogues are Charmides ( an attempt to define temperance ) , Lysis ( a discussion about friendship ) , Laches ( a search for the meaning of the value ) , Protagoras ( a defense of the thesis that virtue is knowledge and it is possible to learn it ) , Euthyphro ( a consideration of the nature of piety ) , and Book I of the Republic ( a discussion of justice ) .
Dialogues intermediate and ultimate
The dialogues of the intermediate and final periods of Plato's life reflect his own philosophical development . The ideas of these works are attributed to Plato himself , although Socrates is still the main character in many dialogues . The writings cover the interim period of Gorgias ( a reflection on various ethical issues ) , Meno ( a discussion of the nature of knowledge ) , Apology ( Socrates his defense of himself at the trial in which he was accused of atheism and corrupting Athenian youth ) , Cratylus ( Socrates' defense of obedience to the laws of the State) , Phaedrus ( scene of the death of Socrates , in which he discusses the theory of ideas, the nature of the soul and the question of immortality) , The Symposium ( Plato 's outstanding dramatic achievement that contains several discourses on beauty and love ) and the Republic ( Plato's supreme philosophical , a detailed discussion of the nature of justice ) .
Among the works of the later period include the Theaetetus ( a denial that knowledge has to be identified with the sense of perception) , Parmenides ( a critical evaluation of the theory of ideas) , Sophist ( further reflection on the ideas or anyway) , Philebus ( discussion of the relationship between pleasure and goodness ) , Timaeus ( Plato's ideas about science and cosmology ) , and Law ( a more practical political and social issues ) .
Theory of Ideas
In the center of Plato's philosophy is his theory of forms or ideas . Basically, his idea of knowledge, his ethical theory , his psychology , his concept of the state and his perspective of art must be understood from this perspective.
Theory of Knowledge
The theory of the ideas of Plato and his theory of knowledge are so interrelated that must be addressed together. Influenced by Socrates, Plato was convinced that knowledge can be attained. He was also convinced of two essential features of knowledge. First , knowledge must be certain and infallible. Second , knowledge must have as its object what is real truth in contrast to what is only apparently . Since Plato what is real has to be fixed , permanent and unchanging , identified the real with the ideal sphere of existence as opposed to the physical world of becoming. One consequence of this approach was Plato's rejection of empiricism , the claim that all knowledge is derived from experience. I thought that the propositions from experience have , at most , a degree of probability . They are not true. Furthermore, the objects of experience are changing phenomena of the physical world , therefore the objects of experience are not proper objects of knowledge.
The theory of knowledge outlined in Plato's Republic , particularly in his discussion of the image of the divided line and the myth of the cave . In the first, Plato distinguishes between two levels of awareness: opinion and knowledge. Statements or claims about the physical or visible world , including the observations and propositions of science are just opinion. Some of these opinions are well founded and some not, but none of them counts as true knowledge. The highest point of knowledge is knowledge, because it concerns the reason rather than experience. The reason , used in due form, leads to ideas that are certain and the objects of these rational insights are true universals , the eternal forms or substances that constitute the real world .
The myth of the cave describes individuals chained in the deepest part of a cave. Tied to the wall face , his vision is limited and therefore can not tell anyone. All you see is the wall of the cave on which models or statues reflect animals and objects passing in front of a glowing fire . One individual flees and leaves to the light of day . With the help of the sun , this person first sees the real world and back to the cave saying that the only things I have seen so far are shadows and appearances and that the real world awaits them outside to break free of their ties . The shadowy world of the cave symbolizes for Plato the physical world of appearances. The trip to the sunny world outside the cave symbolizes the transition to the real world, the world of full and perfect existence , which is the object of knowledge .
Nature of ideas
The theory of ideas can best be understood in terms of mathematical entities . A circle , for example, is defined as a plane figure composed of a series of points, all equidistant from one place. However, no one has actually seen that figure.
What people are seen drawn figures that are more or less accurate approximations of the ideal circle . In fact , when mathematicians define a circle , the above points are not spatial , but logical . No space. However, although the shape of a circle not ever seen - and you can not see ever - mathematicians and others do know what it is. Plato , therefore , exists in the form of circle , but not in the physical space and time. It exists as an immutable object in the field of ideas, which can only be known by reason. The ideas are more entity objects in the physical world both for its perfection and stability as being a model , similarities that give ordinary physical objects which have reality . The circular, square and triangular are excellent examples of what Plato meant by idea. An object that exists in the physical world can be called circle, square or triangle because it seems ( " participates " in the words of Plato) to the idea of a circle , square or triangle.
Plato extended his theory beyond the field of mathematics. Actually, I was more interested in its application in the field of social ethics . The theory was his way of explaining how the same universal term can refer to many things or particular events . The word justice , for example , can be applied to hundreds of actionable because such acts have something in common , they seem to , participate in , the idea of ​​justice . A person is human because he looks like , or participates in , the idea of ​​humanity . If humanity is defined in terms of being a rational animal , then a person is human because it is rational . A particular act may be considered brave or cowardly because part of the idea. An object is beautiful because part of the idea, or form of beauty. Therefore, everything in the world of space and time is what it is by virtue of its resemblance to the universal idea . The ability to define the universal term is the proof that the idea has mastered the universal that referenced.
Plato conceived hierarchically ideas : the idea of God is supreme , that , like the sun in the myth of the cave , illuminates all other ideas. The idea of ​​God represents the passage of Plato in the direction of an ultimate principle of explanation. Basically, the theory of ideas is intended to explain the way by which one attains the knowledge and also how things have become what they are. In philosophical language , the theory of Plato's thesis is both an epistemological ( theory of knowledge) as an ontological thesis ( theory of being ) .
political Theory
The Republic , most political works of Plato, is the question of justice and therefore the questions what is a just state ? and an individual who is just offshore.
The ideal state according to Plato, is composed of three classes. The economic structure of the state lies in the merchant class . Security at the military and political leadership is assumed by the philosopher- kings . The kind of a person is determined by an educational process that begins at birth and continues until that person has reached the highest level of education consistent with their interests and abilities. Those who complete the entire educational process become philosopher-kings . They are those whose minds have evolved so much that they are able to understand the ideas and , therefore , make the wisest decisions . In fact, Plato's ideal educational system is primarily structured to produce philosopher-kings .
Plato associates the traditional Greek virtues with the class structure of the ideal state . Temperance is the only virtue of the artisan class , the value is the power of the military class and wisdom characterizes the rulers. Justice , the fourth virtue , characterizes society as a whole. The just state is one in which each class must perform its own function without going into the activities of other classes .
Plato applied to the analysis of the human soul such a scheme : the rational , the will and appetites . A righteous person is one whose rational element , aided by the will , controls the appetites . There is an obvious analogy with the previous state structure , in which the wise philosopher-kings , aided by soldiers , govern the rest of society.
Plato 's ethical theory rests on the assumption that virtue is knowledge and that it can be learned. This doctrine must be understood in the whole of his theory of ideas. As already said, the ultimate idea for Plato is the idea of ​​God , and knowledge of that idea is the guide on the verge of adopting a moral decision. Plato maintained that to know God is to do good . The consequence of this is that anyone who behaves unethically so from ignorance. This conclusion is derived from Plato's certainty that a virtuous person is really happy and as individuals always desire their own happiness , always eager to do what is moral.
Plato had an idea antagonistic art and the artist even endorsing certain types of religious art and moralistic . Your approach has to do again with his theory of ideas. A pretty flower , for example, is a copy or imitation of universal ideas flower and beauty. The physical flower is a reproduction of reality , ie of ideas. A flower box is therefore a secondary reproduction of reality. This also means that the artist is a reproduction of a second order of knowledge and, indeed , the frequent criticism from Plato to the artists was that they lacked a true knowledge of what they were doing. Artistic creation, Plato observed , seemed to have its roots in an inspired madness.
The influence of Plato through the history of philosophy has been immense . His Academy existed until the year 529 BC , when it was closed by order of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, who opposed the spread of pagan teachings . Plato 's impact on Jewish thought is obvious in the work of the first century Alexandrian philosopher Philo of Alexandria. Neoplatonism , founded in the third century by the philosopher Plotinus , was an important further development of the ideas of Plato. The theologians Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Augustine were early Christian exponents of a Platonic perspective . Platonic ideas played a crucial role in the development of Christianity and in medieval Islamic thought .
During the Renaissance , the first center of influence Florentine Platonic Academy was founded in the fifteenth century near Florence. Under the leadership of Marsilio Ficino , members of the Academy studied Plato in Ancient Greek. In England , Platonism was recovered in the seventeenth century by Ralph Cudworth and others who became known as the Cambridge school . Plato's influence has come to hand twentieth century thinkers such as Alfred North Whitehead , who once paid tribute describing the philosophy as a simple ' set of annotations of Plato ' .

@ Pacoespada1

miércoles, 25 de septiembre de 2013

柏拉圖,他的哲學柏拉圖在公元前428年出生在雅典一個貴族家庭的心臟。他的父親,阿里斯頓,被認為已經從早期的雅典國王的後裔。 Perictione ,他的母親有關,公元前六世紀立法機關梭倫。當他還是個孩子時,他的父親去世了,母親改嫁,副教授的政治家伯里克利Pyrilampes 。一名年輕男子柏拉圖有政治野心,但與雅典的統治者變得幻滅。後來,他成為了蘇格拉底的弟子,接受他的基本哲學和辯證的辯論風格:追求真理的問題,答案和更多的問題, maieutics 。雖然這是一個很有爭議的情節,一些學者認為這是一個權力的文學隱喻蘇格拉底,柏拉圖目睹了死亡,於公元前399年在雅典的民主制度也許他的生命擔心,一段時間離開雅典前往意大利,西西里島和埃及。387柏拉圖在雅典成立了中國科學院,機構往往被認為是歐洲第一個大學。它提供了一個全面的課程,包括天文學,生物學,數學,政治理論和哲學等科目。亞里士多德是最優秀的學生。面對與哲學和政治實踐相結合的可能性,柏拉圖在公元前367年來到西西里島導師錫拉丘茲新的統治者狄奧尼修斯年輕。實驗失敗。柏拉圖在公元前361年回到錫拉丘茲,但再次在西西里島事務的參與收效甚微。他花了近幾年他的生活在學院的演講和寫作。他死了近80年,在雅典在公元前348或347工作柏拉圖的著作採取對話的形式,概述的哲學思想進行了討論和批評的背景下,涉及兩個或兩個以上的人的對話或辯論。柏拉圖的著作中,第一組包括35個對話和13個字母。一些對話和卡的真實性提出質疑。首先對話對話框可分為三個階段的組合物。首先代表試圖溝通柏拉圖的蘇格拉底的哲學和辯證的風格。這些對話有一些相同的參數。蘇格拉底遇到有人聲稱知道的不多,是無知和尋求幫助時,他聲稱知道誰。然而,正如蘇格拉底開始問這問那,它變得清晰,聖人說誰是真的不知道什麼,他聲稱知道,蘇格拉底,因為至少會出現兩個字符明智,他知道他一無所知。當然,這方面的知識,是智慧的開端。在這組對話米德斯(試圖確定節制) ,裂解(討論關於友誼) ,懈怠(搜索的價值的含義) ,普羅塔哥拉(防禦美德是知識的論斷並有可能去學) ,尤西弗羅(代價虔誠的性質) ,我共和國(正義的討論) 。中間及最終的對話中間和最後的時期柏拉圖的生命的對話反映了他自己的哲學的發展。這些作品都歸於柏拉圖本人的想法,雖然蘇格拉底是在許多對話仍是主角。著作涵蓋的中期高爾吉亞篇“ (各種倫理問題上的反映) ,梅諾(討論了知識的本質) ,道歉(蘇格拉底他的防守,自己在審訊中,他被指控的無神論和腐蝕雅典青年) ,克拉底魯(蘇格拉底的國防服從國家的法律) ,菲德洛斯(蘇格拉底之死,他在其中討論思想,理論的靈魂和本質的問題現場不朽) ,此次研討會(柏拉圖的優秀的戲劇性的成就,包含幾個對美和愛的話語)和中華民國(柏拉圖的最高哲學,司法性質的詳細論述) 。在後期的作品包括泰阿泰德知識確定與感知覺(拒絕) ,巴門尼德(思想理論的關鍵評價) ,智者(進一步思考的想法或反正) , Philebus (快樂和善良之間的關係進行討論) ,蒂邁歐篇(柏拉圖的思想對科學和宇宙學) ,法(一個更實際的政治和社會問題) 。思想理論在柏拉圖的哲學的中心是他的理論的形式或想法。基本上的知識,他的想法,他的道德理論,他的心理,他的狀態和他的藝術觀的概念,必須從這個角度來理解。知識論柏拉圖的思想理論和他的理論知識是相互關聯的,必須一起解決。影響蘇格拉底,柏拉圖堅信,知識可以達到。他也相信兩個基本特徵的知識。首先,必須有一定的知識和犯錯。二,知識必須有什麼是真正的真理對比作為其對象是什麼只是表面。自柏拉圖以來什麼是真實的,是固定的,永久的和不變的,確定真正成為物理世界的存在,而不是理想的球體。這種做法的後果之一是經驗主義,柏拉圖的拒絕的說法,所有的知識都來自經驗。我認為,從經驗的命題,在大多數的情況下,一定程度的概率。他們是不是真的。此外,經驗的對象改變物理世界的現象,因此,知識,經驗的對象是沒有合適的對象。理論知識概述柏拉圖的共和國,尤其是在他討論的圖像分割線和神話的洞穴。在第一階段,柏拉圖區分兩個層次之間的認識:意見和知識。陳述或聲明關於物理或可見的世界,包括科學的意見和主張是公正的意見。這些意見成立,有些沒有,但他們都沒有算作真正的知識。最高的知識點是知識,因為它涉及的原因,而不是經驗。究其原因,在適當的形式使用,導致有一定的想法,和這些理性的見解的對象是真正的普遍性,永恆的形式,構成了現實世界中的物質。山洞的神話描述個人拴在一個山洞最深的部分。綁在牆上的臉,他的視野是有限的,因此,不能告訴任何人。所有你看到的是洞壁模型或雕像反映動物和物體傳遞一個灼熱的爐火前。其中個別出逃和樹葉的光明的一天。隨著太陽的幫助下,這個人首先看到的現實世界,並說,迄今為止我所見過的唯一的東西是陰影和外觀和真實的世界,等待著他們的外面掙脫他們的洞穴聯繫。神出鬼沒的洞穴世界,象徵柏拉圖出場物理世界。洞外陽光明媚的世界之行象徵過渡到真實的世界,這個世界的完整和完美的存在,這是知識的對象。自然的想法思想理論才能最好地理解數學實體。一個圓圈,例如,被定義為一個平面圖形組成的一系列的點,都從一個地方等距。然而,實際上沒有人看到這個數字。什麼人都看到繪製的人物都或多或少準確近似理想的圓。事實上,數學家定義一個圓時,以上各點是沒有空間的,但邏輯。沒有足夠的空間。不過,雖然沒有見過一個圓的形狀,你不能看到不斷數學家和別人不知道它是什麼。柏拉圖,因此,在圓的形式存在,但不是在物理空間和時間。它的存在是不可變的對象在該領域的想法,只能在已知的原因。想法是在物理世界的實體對象既為它的完善和穩定,做模特,給普通物理對象具有現實的相似之處。圓形,方形和三角形是柏拉圖的意思是什麼想法很好的例子。存在於物理世界中的對象可以被稱為圓形,方形或三角形,因為它似乎( “參與”在柏拉圖的話)的想法的一個圓圈,方形或三角形。柏拉圖數學領域之外擴展他的理論。其實,我更感興趣的是其在社會道德領域的應用。這個理論是他的方式解釋如何在相同的通用術語可以參考很多事情或特定事件。 “正義”這個詞,例如,可以應用到數以百計的可操作的,因為這種行為有共同的東西,他們似乎,參與,正義的理念。一個人,因為他是人類的樣子,或參與,人類的想法。如果人類是理性動物,然後一個人是人類的,因為它是合理的。一個特定的行為可能被視為勇敢或怯懦,因為有一部分的想法。對象是美麗的,因為有一部分的想法,或形式美感。因此,世界上的一切都在空間和時間是什麼它是憑藉其相似的普遍的想法。通用術語定義的能力是證明這個想法已經掌握了普遍引用。柏拉圖設想層次的想法:上帝的觀念是至高無上的,山洞的神話中的太陽,像,照亮所有其他的想法。神的想法代表了柏拉圖通過一個最終的解釋原則的方向。基本上,思想理論解釋的方式達到的知識和他們是什麼事情都變得如何。哲理性的語言,柏拉圖的理論論文既是認識論(理論知識)作為本體論的論文(理論之中) 。政治理論共和國最柏拉圖的政治工作,是正義的問題,因此問題一個公正的狀態是什麼?個人誰是近海。根據柏拉圖的理想狀態,是由三個類。國家的經濟結構在於在商人階層。在軍事和政治領導的安全性假設哲學家國王。樣的一個人,是由一個教育的過程,從出生時開始,一直持續到這個人與自己的興趣和能力相一致的教育已經達到了最高水平。完成整個教育過程成為哲學家國王。他們是那些頭腦已經發展了這麼多,他們是能夠理解的想法,因此,做出最明智的決定。事實上,柏拉圖的“理想的教育體系結構主要是製作哲學家國王。柏拉圖聯營公司希臘傳統美德與階級結構的理想狀態​​。節制是唯一憑藉工匠類,該值是軍事類的力量和智慧的統治者的特徵。第四美德,正義,社會作為一個整體特點。剛剛狀態是每一個類都必須履行其自己的功能,無需進入其他類別的活動。柏拉圖的分析應用到人類靈魂的這樣一個計劃:理性,意志和慾望。義人是一個理性的元素,借助於意志,控制胃口。與以前的狀態結構,其中智慧的哲學家國王,士兵的幫助下,支配社會的其餘部分有一個明顯的例子。道德柏拉圖的道德理論基於這樣的假設,美德是知識可以得知。這一學說必須理解在整個他的理論思想。前面已經說了,最終對柏拉圖的想法是上帝的觀念,這種想法的知識是指導瀕臨採取道德決定。柏拉圖認為,認識神的是一輩子做好。這樣做的後果,是不道德的行為,任何人誰從無知。這個結論是來自一個賢惠的人從柏拉圖的肯定,真的很高興,作為個人總是渴望自己的幸福,總是渴望做什麼是道德。藝術柏拉圖有一個想法對立的藝術和藝術家,甚至贊同某些類型的宗教藝術和說教。你的方法有再次做他的思想理論。一個漂亮的花,例如,是一個普遍觀念的花和美麗的複製或模仿。物理花是一種對現實的再現,即思想。因此,花箱次要再現現實。這也意味著,藝術家是一個二階知識,而事實上,從柏拉圖到藝術家經常批評他們在做什麼,他們缺乏真正的知識的再現。藝術創作,柏拉圖觀察,似乎有其根源的靈感瘋狂。影響通過柏拉圖哲學的歷史的影響是巨大的。他的學院存在,直到公元前529年,當它被關閉的拜占庭皇帝查士丁尼一世,誰反對異教教義的傳播秩序。柏拉圖的猶太思想的影響是顯而易見的,在工作的第一個世紀哲學家亞歷山大亞歷山大Philo 。新柏拉圖主義哲學家普羅提諾,始建於公元三世紀,柏拉圖的思想是一個重要的進一步發展。克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,奧利和奧古斯丁的神學家是早期基督教代表人物柏拉圖式的角度來看。基督教的發展,並在中世紀的伊斯蘭思想,柏拉圖的理念起到了至關重要的作用。在文藝復興時期,佛羅倫薩柏拉圖學院的影響力第一中心始建於15世紀佛羅倫薩附近。 Marsilio菲奇諾的領導下,學院研究古希臘的柏拉圖。在英格蘭,在十七世紀由拉爾夫·卡德沃思和其他人誰成為劍橋學派被稱為柏拉圖主義被收回。柏拉圖的影響力已經到了手,如20世紀的思想家懷特海,誰曾讚揚描述作為一個簡單的“設置註釋柏拉圖哲學。

@ Pacoespada1

荷馬。 “伊利亞特”和“奧德賽”

荷馬史詩,傳說將是一個盲詩人誰前往背誦史詩,在歐洲中世紀以後的幾個世紀,雖然沒有肯定自己的城鎮和城市,荷馬的名字是傳統的分配兩個偉大的古希臘史詩“伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” ,著名作家。事實上,這兩部史詩的一些問題是否是由同一作者。然而,可用的語言和歷史數據表明,詩寫在希臘小亞細亞西海岸的定居點,約公元前九世紀“伊利亞特”這兩部史詩敘述傳說中的事件據稱發生的時候,他們寫的許多世紀前。 “伊利亞特”中的特洛伊戰爭的最後一年,形成的大背景下的情節。它講述的希臘英雄阿喀琉斯的憤怒。由他的首席指揮官,年輕的戰士阿喀琉斯退出戰鬥,阿伽門農的侮辱,他的同胞的希臘人留下了自己的幸運,患上可怕的失敗在手中的木馬。阿基里斯拒絕所有嘗試希臘人的部分,但在和解中最後給出了一個辦法,讓帕特羅克洛斯自己他的同伴在他的部隊的頭。帕特羅克洛斯在戰鬥中死亡,阿喀琉斯的憤怒和怨恨的獵物,執導的木馬程序,其領導者,赫克托(普里阿摩斯的兒子) ,在單一的戰鬥中擊敗他的仇恨。這首詩最後交付阿喀琉斯Hector的身體普里阿摩斯的,因為它埋葬他,木馬王承認一定的親和力,因為都必須面對死亡的悲劇和哀悼。“奧德賽”“奧德賽”描述了希臘英雄奧德修斯特洛伊戰爭(在拉丁傳統的“尤利西斯” )的回報。在開幕式的場景,講述了久違在奧德修斯的房子後,他的已經陷入了混亂。他的妻子佩內洛普求婚者的一組正在摧毀他們的財產。然後,自己的英雄故事的重點。故事跨越十幾年的旅行,其間面臨許多危險,如吃人的巨人波呂斐摩斯,如此微妙的威脅表示,如果他放棄承諾不朽的女神卡呂普索回了家。這首詩的下半年開始,他的家鄉伊薩卡島奧德修斯的到來。在這裡,顯示一絲絲涼意和無限的耐心,測試他的僕人的忠誠度,並生效情節血腥報復佩內洛普的追求者,並與他的兒子,他的妻子和老人團聚的父親。史詩這兩部史詩寫在正式的詩歌和升高,在日常語言中使用過的語言,它的指標是長短格六步(見作詩) 。這是不可能區分這兩部作品的文體方面。然而,這是很容易理解為什麼,自古以來,很多讀者會被歸結為兩種不同的作者。 “伊利亞特”講的激情和無法解決的難題。有沒有真正的壞人,阿伽門農,阿喀琉斯,普里阿摩斯和其他字符的受害者的悲慘和殘忍的宇宙。然而,在“奧德賽”中,被擊敗邪惡,正義的勝利和家人,黯然分開,再次相遇。理性的智慧,尤其是奧德修斯,作為整個故事的推動力。荷馬的讚美詩隨著與所謂荷馬的讚美詩,一系列相對短詩,慶祝戰功的各種神靈,史詩風格類似化合物的,也歸因於荷馬的“伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” 。荷馬問題現代文的荷馬史詩透過中世紀和文藝復興時期的手稿,而這又是古代手稿的副本,現在失去了。儘管奧德賽,廣大的讀者,從古代的身份荷馬(有人形容它作為一個盲人詩人希俄斯)或文本的某些部分的作者,存在許多不確定因素,最後的場面古典不久前,認為是一個詩人荷馬(或至多兩個詩人)很像別人。總之,他們認為, “伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” ,雖然傳統材料的基礎上,是獨立的作品,原來很大程度上是虛構的。然而,在過去的200年中,這一觀點已經發生了巨大的變化,出現了無盡的荷馬問題:誰,何時以及如何組成的“伊利亞特”和“奧德賽” ?然而,找到了答案,滿足各方。在十九世紀和二十世紀的學者們聲稱,某些內部矛盾來證明,詩歌僅僅是彙編,或添置,獨立的抒情詩短(規定) ,一神論,對他而言,覺得這些不一致微不足道的或假想的全球團結和詩表明,無論是產品的一個單一的心靈。近日,一直專注於學術的討論“口頭公式化的成分”的理論,繳費基數的詩,因為我們知道他們今天的傳統詩意的文辭是一個複雜的系統(例如,名詞組合綽號“跟腱燈腳”)只能是幾代人的共同努力下,英勇的吟遊詩人的產物。無論這些解釋是至關重要的,但它是公平地說,幾乎所有的評論家都同意,一方面,傳統的帶有很大的權重組成的詩,其次,基本上都似乎是工作的一個相同的創造者。同時,考古發現,在過去的125年的過程中,特別是那些海因里希·謝里曼表明,荷馬所描述的文明不是虛構的。因此,詩是有些歷史文件,並在任何時候創造的爭論一直存在這方面的討論。影響直接荷馬是後來的希臘文學之父:劇院,史學和哲學,承擔的問題,喜劇和悲劇的,在這些史詩和荷馬技術提出的印記。最新史詩詩人荷馬西方文學一直是無可爭議的大師(即使在但丁的情況下,不知道他的作品直接) 。但奇怪的是,最值得注意的是他的追隨者,荷馬的工作是客觀模型。因此,舉例來說,維吉爾的伊尼伊德來自荷馬史詩反駁個人主義的系統值,荷馬的場景,英國詩人約翰·彌爾頓的“失樂園”的詩句,描述了在天空中的戰鬥,本質上是漫畫。對於小說,拉曼恰(1605) ,堂吉訶德,塞萬提斯, “尤利西斯” (1922)詹姆斯·喬伊斯愛爾蘭,荷馬史詩,更容易模仿和嘲諷的史詩。事實是,從荷馬的時候,沒有作者匯集了他的史詩天才。@ Pacoespada1

Homer. The Iliad and the Odyssey

 Homer, as legend would be a blind bard who traveled the towns and cities reciting epics as was done in Europe in the Middle Ages and later centuries , although nothing is known for sure of himself , Homer is the name traditionally assigned the famous author of the Iliad and the Odyssey , the two great epics of ancient Greece . In fact, some question whether these two epics are by the same author . However, linguistic and historical data that are available suggest that the poems were written in the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor, about the ninth century BC
the Iliad
The two epics narrate legendary events which allegedly occurred many centuries before the time they were written . The Iliad is in the final year of the Trojan War , which forms the backdrop to the plot . It tells the story of the wrath of the Greek hero Achilles. Insulted by his commander in chief, Agamemnon , the young warrior Achilles withdraws from battle, leaving his fortune to his fellow Greeks, suffering terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans. Achilles rejected all attempts at reconciliation on the part of the Greeks , but finally gives in a way to allow his companion Patroclus himself at the head of his troops. Patroclus dies in combat, and Achilles , prey of anger and resentment, directed his hatred of Trojans, whose leader , Hector (son of Priam ) , defeated in single combat . The poem concludes with delivery Achilles Hector's body to Priam , for it to bury him , recognizing certain affinity with the Trojan king , since both must confront the tragedy of death and mourning.
the Odyssey
The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek hero Odysseus ( Ulysses in the Latin tradition ) of the Trojan War . In the opening scenes recounted the mess that has been mired in the house of Odysseus after his long absence. A group of suitors of his wife Penelope is destroying their properties. Then, the story focuses on the hero himself . The story spans ten years of travel , during which faces many dangers like man-eating giant , Polyphemus , and so subtle threats as representing the goddess Calypso , who promises immortality if he renounces back home. The second half of the poem begins with the arrival of Odysseus to his home island of Ithaca. Here , displaying a coolness and infinite patience , tests the loyalty of his servants , and takes effect plot bloody revenge against Penelope 's suitors , and is reunited with his son , his wife and his elderly father.
These two epics are written in formal verse and elevated, in a language ever used in ordinary language , its metric is the dactylic hexameter (see versification ) . It is impossible to distinguish between these two works on the stylistic aspect . However, it is easy to understand why , since ancient times, many readers will have been attributed to two different authors . The Iliad speaks of passions and unsolvable dilemmas . There are no real villains in it , Achilles , Agamemnon , Priam and the other characters are victims of a tragic and cruel universe . In the Odyssey , however , evil is defeated, justice triumphs and family, sadly separated , meet again. The rational intellect , particularly that of Odysseus , acts as a driving force throughout the story.
Homeric Hymns
Along with the Iliad and the Odyssey are the so-called Homeric Hymns , a series of relatively short poems , which celebrate the exploits of various gods , epic style compounds similar, also attributed to Homer .
The Homeric Question
The modern text of the Homeric poems are transmitted through medieval and Renaissance manuscripts , which in turn are copies of ancient manuscripts , now lost . Despite the many uncertainties that exist about the identity of Homer (some describe it as a blind bard of Chios ) or the authorship of certain parts of the text , as the final scenes of the Odyssey , the majority of readers , from ancient classical up not long ago , believed that Homer was a poet ( or at most , two poets ) much like others. They believed , in short, that the Iliad and the Odyssey , although based on traditional materials , are independent works , original and largely fictitious .
However, during the past 200 years , this view has changed dramatically, following the emergence of the endless Homeric Question : Who , how and when composed the Iliad and the Odyssey ? Yet found an answer that satisfies all parties. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries scholars have claimed that certain internal inconsistencies came to demonstrate that the poems were merely compilations, or additions , of independent short lyric poems ( lays ), the Unitarians , for his part, felt that these inconsistencies were insignificant or imaginary global unity and the poems showed that both were the product of a single mind. Recently, the academic discussion has focused on the theory of " oral - formulaic composition " , whereby the base of the poems as we know them today is a complex system of traditional poetic diction ( for example, combinations of noun - epithet " Achilles light foot " ) can only be the product of the joint efforts of several generations of bards heroic .
Neither of these interpretations is crucial , but it would be fair to say that virtually all commentators agree that , on the one hand , the tradition carries great weight in the composition of the poems and, secondly , that essentially both seem the work of a same creator . Meanwhile , archaeological findings made ​​in the course of the last 125 years, particularly those of Heinrich Schliemann , have shown that much of the civilization described by Homer was not fictional . The poems are therefore somewhat historical documents , and discussion of this aspect has been present at all times in the debate over creation.
Homer is , directly , the father of later Greek literature : the theater , historiography and even philosophy , bear the imprint of the issues, comic and tragic , raised in these epics and Homeric techniques . For the latest epic poets Homer Western literature has always been the undisputed master ( even if, as in the case of Dante , did not know his works directly) . But curiously, most notable for his followers , Homer's work was both objective model . Thus, for example , Virgil's Aeneid comes to refute the individualistic system of values ​​of the Homeric epic , and the Homeric scenes of Paradise Lost , the English poet John Milton , the verses that describe the battle in the sky , are essentially comic . With respect to the novel, Don Quixote of La Mancha ( 1605 ) , by Miguel de Cervantes , or Ulysses ( 1922 ) James Joyce Irish , the more Homeric are more likely to parody and mockery of the epic . The truth is that from the time of Homer , no author has brought together his epic genius.

@ Pacoespada1

domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013

Mismatch in the cold

The clock tower was about to strike twelve . The man turned his head each time to check the time, was walking through the square nervous in the coldest morning I remembered a long time. Some people passed him, indifferent to the turmoil he felt , wrapped in their coats trying to dodge the fierce blizzard that day in January mesetaria; ran looking for some shelter as the man trampled the snow with their rides nervous about the statue that occupied the center of the square.
The twelve bells bounced off the gray atmosphere. She did not appear. The sky was still very dark and seemed to project a veil over the human heart , in the meantime, hit the ground with their feet to warm them . He thought of her, his image always stuck in your brain, in the silence of the night or in the bustle of the streets, did not care. She was always there.
The beating of his heart were redoubled , a mad rush of blood ran through his veins like fire on a wildfire. I felt burned their temples and leaned against the pedestal of the monument because he feared faint. A woman crossing the square walking towards him, he wore a fur coat and hat of the same material that windy ride , feisty, flirtatious ... she was, she had no doubt . The woman walked past without looking at Sergio . He was wrong , she was not as he had thought to see it from afar , with his face covered by the coat collar . He felt heavy and cold slab on his chest , further advance of another cold and heavy soon entirely cover him and that he would no longer feel about themselves . He had already made the decision because she knew that she would always another that was united by marriage, by appearances , a key element in social relations , especially in a provincial town .I knew they would never unite their lives , even their bodies , and I knew that quote was crazy stupid. The promise he had started the previous evening in a moment of despair was not a sign of love if not of concern , it could be feared that the man threw the river from the bridge as he swore he would do if he did not agree to meet .But ... what if it were not so ? What if she came to the end of the ready to run away with him ? What if he loved him ?However, as time was separated from the twelve and she still did not appear , which had guessed what had always known in the back of your being , that is, that the object of his passion would not live to his side ever became a reality , inexorable as a sentence . Time's up , no more illusions That left the bridge and below the river with deep water, frost , cozy . They would calm for all their pain and anxiety.But still expect a little more. I could have missed something , perhaps had been delayed for some compelling reason , why not finally prevent outside your appointment and they could see her come running to throw herself into his arms , because what could be more important than the passion that united ?The bell struck one in the clock tower . A male figure shuffled through the snow to leave the square down a side street that led to the bridge across the river.Ten minutes later a woman came to the plaza looking around, with rapid head movements , almost like a bird. He seemed to find someone . She crossed the square thinking tragedies in flames go out. I understood that something was wrong because of the delay . If so could never forgive . The winter wind howling around her with reproach and the woman thought of the man . I felt that the last meeting he had with him had happened a thousand years ago .Actually I had met the previous month and in that space of time had become the center of gravity on which his life revolved . He began to feel his own transformation within a few days to meet , at a party held at the home of a mutual friend , by whom they were presented . He soon realized that the man's interest in her was very special , saw this situation with eyes that were not body , because she had appeared a deep impression . I knew there were casualties encounters at the entrance of the theater when she arrived with her ​​husband , or that all significant parties to whom came he was, and that non of relevant local characters . The disdain he had felt at first toward the man had become soon after, without knowing how, in a unremitting passion , a sense of emptiness and fullness to a time that made ​​him dream about him in each and every one of those Frosty nights steppe city . I was afraid even that could have spoken his name in a dream , the suspicion arose out of some looks from her husband who seemed to hide a background bitter, murky water where there was glass bowl .She however , basically did not care what her husband might think because, when the man had declared his love and desire felt the bonds of their marriage had irretrievably broken and now I could not remember what link Real had joined the man who slept with her.He received the cold whip in the face and recalled the ultimatum he had pronounced the day after begging antrior , and curse him : If she did not leave him kill himself .Think you 'd be dead now anywhere was something that he suffered as a thousand deaths ; feeling agony not let him think out of the square and headed down the street almost groping for his eyes were thick with tears , towards the bridge on the frozen river . If you still could find , stop ...The man's words echoed endlessly in his head as he walked the hieroglyph of streets leading to the river, without looking too much about where I was going , the foot was led by force of habit, reached the bridge feeling that escaped her throat heart up by fear and hope. Soon he saw that there was no one except her and her terror, that seemed to have taken shape . I knew the bridge was his favorite place and that this confession was his place to die. Tears streamed down her face like tiny glaciers while searching for some sign , some vestige however little , to let him think he was alive , but all that went with it was desperation, who along with his frozen tears descended to join the turbulent flow.Someone heard a scream torn woman who stopped short , someone who did not pay more attention and kept going while the other side of town, on a filthy tavern , the man hurried his umpteenth cup and , with the advice of wine trying to justify the fact that still continue in this world with the idea that not deserve to die by a woman who had broken his promise. Within it, in the depths of his conscience, offered by his cowardice .