domingo, 16 de diciembre de 2012
Stereotypes are beliefs about human communities that are created and shared within groups and between groups within a culture. The stereotype can be considered "a lower form of thinking" if this is wrong for not coincide with reality, in obedience to a defensive motivation or being rigid or ethnocentric (Miller). The ethnic stereotype (Brigham) is a generalization concerning certain attribute of an ethnic group that can be considered unjustified by an objective observer. According to Tajfel, a stereotype of an ethnic group is defined based on a consensus of opinion on the traits attributed to that group. That stereotype is considered negative because it is based on concepts learned wrongly, in overgeneralizations or inaccuracies, or excessively rigid despite the passage of time. When social consensus on certain stereotype, this is added the adjective "cultural". Among the features that characterize the stereotypes are what define the group and distinguishing it from other groups. The stereotype is related to two concepts in the treatment of human groups, while the stereotype would be the set of beliefs about the attributes assigned to a group, on a cognitive level, the bias would be negative assessment of the group in a emotional level and discrimination would be inequitable conduct in the treatment given to individuals by virtue of their membership in that group in the behavioral level. Therefore, the negative stereotype could be used to rationalize and justify prejudice. The stereotype, in addition to cognitive function, plays a defensive role, since it is the projection of certain values, status and rights, thus maintaining its dominant position certain groups over others. The individual, faced with evidence that contradicts certain stereotype, your reaction will depend on the rigidity of their beliefs or their interests in the disputed. If rigid in their beliefs or their interest in maintaining the status is high, there will be no change, the contradiction is the exception that proves the rule. In contrast, an open-minded individual can lose confidence here in forms accepted valuation. Allport links stereotype and prejudice; defines the former as an exaggerated belief associated with a category. Its function is to justify conduct in respect of that category. In the stereotype exists categorization process used to form clusters of events and objects to guide the adaptation of subjects; assimilates everything it can to the category and to quickly identify the objects associated with that category, which saturates turn all your content from the same emotional effect and ideal, this process can be rational to a greater or lesser extent. The errors associated with the use of stereotypes are as phenomenal absolutism Campbell on how to characterize the outgroup, to think that this is perceived as, without considering projections and faulty communications, exaggerating intergroup differences and intragroup homogeneity; causal perception mistaken in attributing differences of race rather than the environment; claim that negative traits produce hostility, when the real cause of this may be the ethnocentrism, threats or aggression displacement. Campbell in his contribution to the study of the influence of stereotype highlights comparative context in the selection of the features that make up the stereotypes. Places the origins of that selection in the interaction between groups and their roles in society. Reveals causal assumptions implicit in some types of intervention for change and improvement stereotypes through confirmation traits. Attaches importance to causal explanations of the differences between groups.